JavaScript destructuring nested object and array

JavaScript destructuring is a powerful feature that allows developers to extract data from arrays and objects in an elegant and concise way. This technique makes it easier to work with complex data structures and reduces the amount of code required to extract information from these structures. Whether you’re a seasoned JavaScript developer or just starting out, understanding the basics of destructuring and how it can be applied in your code is crucial for improving your overall coding skills. In this article, we’ll take a deep dive into JavaScript destructuring, covering everything from the basics to more advanced topics, so you can take your coding to the next level. So sit back, relax, and let’s start unraveling the magic of destructuring!

JavaScript Destructuring array

The destructuring assignment syntax is a JavaScript expression that makes it possible to unpack values from arrays, or properties from objects, into distinct variables. (1) Here is a simple example ,

const numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];

const [first, second, third] = numbers;

console.log(first); // 1
console.log(second); // 2
console.log(third); // 3

In this example, we have an array called numbers which contains 5 elements. We use destructuring to extract the first three elements of the array and assign them to separate variables, first, second, and third. The destructuring syntax uses square brackets [] to indicate that we’re destructuring an array and lists the variables we want to extract, separated by commas. This syntax allows us to extract elements from an array and assign them to individual variables in a clean and concise way, without having to use indexing or looping construct.

Line 3 in code above is identical to :

const first = numbers[0];
const second = numbers[1];
const third = numbers[2];

This syntax is commonly used in React, one popular example is useState.

const [count, setCount] = useState(0);

This is just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to destructuring arrays. You can use advanced destructuring patterns to extract specific elements, ignore elements, and even extract elements from nested arrays, among other things. In this article, we’ll explore all of these features and more, so you can fully harness the power of destructuring in your code.

Skipping elements of array

By using commas,‘ to separate the variables we want to extract and skipping elements that we don’t need, we can easily pick and choose which elements we want to extract from an array. This is just one of the many ways that destructuring arrays can help you write more concise and maintainable code.

Here’s an example of destructuring an array to extract the 3rd and 5th elements:

const numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6];

const [, , third, , fifth] = numbers;

console.log(third); // 3
console.log(fifth); // 5

As you see first and second elements are skipped by “[,,” pattern. This means if you don’t need an element you just use a comma.

Destructuring Objects

Destructuring objects in JavaScript is a convenient way to extract properties from objects and assign them to variables. Here’s a simple example:

const person = {
  name: 'John Doe',
  age: 30,
  address: {
    street: '123 Main St',
    city: 'Anytown',
    state: 'CA',
    zip: '12345'

const { name, age } = person;

console.log(name); // John Doe
console.log(age); // 30

of course we could have done it like below and get the same result

const name =;
const age = simpleData.age;

In this example , we use JavaScript destructuring feature to extract the name and age properties from the person object and assign them to variables with the same name. This way, we can easily access the properties of an object without having to use dot notation or bracket notation.

Note that our variable name is exact same as property name of the object i.e. name and age. This is not the case in array as in that case the order is important. Also we are using curly braces {} for objects.

In addition to extracting properties, destructuring JavaScript objects also allows us to assign default values, rename variables, and extract nested properties. For example:

const { name, age, job = 'Unemployed', address: { street } } = person;

console.log(name); // John Doe
console.log(age); // 30
console.log(job); // Unemployed
console.log(street); // 123 Main St

In this example, we extract the name, age, and street properties from the person object. We also assign a default value of ‘Unemployed’ to the job variable if the job property does not exist in the person object. Additionally, we use nested destructuring to extract the street property from the address object.

Destructuring nested object

Above you can see how we destruct a nested object when we extract the street property from the address object. This pattern can be really useful when you have a complex nested object that need to extract only a few properties. Here is an example

const nestedData = {
    innerData: {
        name: "John Doe",
        age: 32,
        addresses: [
                street: "123 Main St",
                city: "San Francisco",
                state: "CA"
                street: "456 Second Ave",
                city: "Los Angeles",
                state: "CA"
                street: "789 Third St",
                city: "San Diego",
                state: "CA"
                street: "111 Fourth Ave",
                city: "Sacramento",
                state: "CA"
                street: "222 Fifth St",
                city: "San Jose",
                state: "CA"
                street: "333 Sixth Ave",
                city: "Fresno",
                state: "CA"
                street: "444 Seventh St",
                city: "Long Beach",
                state: "CA"
                street: "555 Eighth Ave",
                city: "Oakland",
                state: "CA"
    status: "active"

const {
    innerData: { name, age, addresses: [, , , , { street: fifthAddressStreet }] },
} = nestedData;

console.log(name); // "John Doe"
console.log(age); // 32
console.log(fifthAddressStreet); // "222 Fifth St"
console.log(status); // "active"

In this example, we’re Javascript destructuring the nestedData object and using nested array and object destructuring patterns to extract the street property of the fifth address in the addresses array. The value is then assigned to a new constant variable called fifthAddressStreet. To extract the fifth address, we use four empty destructuring patterns [,,,] to skip over the first four addresses, and then extract the street property of the fifth address using { street: fifthAddressStreet }.


In conclusion, destructuring in JavaScript is a versatile and powerful feature that enables developers to extract data from arrays and objects in a concise and expressive manner. Whether you’re working with simple data structures or complex nested objects, destructuring can simplify your code, making it more readable and maintainable.

With destructuring, you can extract elements from arrays, assign default values, rename variables, and extract nested properties with ease. This can significantly reduce the amount of code you need to write and minimize the risk of bugs and errors.

Overall, destructuring is a highly recommended feature for any JavaScript (or TypeScript) developer to learn and use. Whether you’re just starting out with JavaScript or have been working with it for years, destructuring is a feature that can greatly enhance your coding experience and make your life as a developer much easier.





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